Pressure Vessel Head Types


Pressure vessels are essential components in various industrial processes, designed to contain and store fluids or gases under high pressure safely. These vessels come in various shapes and sizes, but one critical aspect of their design is the type of head used to seal the ends of the vessel. Different head types are chosen based on pressure requirements, structural integrity, and the specific application. This article will explore three common types of pressure vessel heads: Flanged-only heads, Flanged and Flued heads, and ASME F&D (Flanged and Dished) heads, along with their respective uses.

1. Flanged Only Heads

Flanged-only heads, or flat heads, are the simplest type of vessel head. As the name suggests, these heads are flat and perpendicular to the axis of the vessel. They are commonly used in low-pressure applications or where the pressure vessel is relatively small. Flanged-only heads are cost-effective and suitable for vessels with pressures up to 15 psi.


– Storage tanks for liquids with low vapor pressure.
– Air receivers.
– Small, low-pressure process vessels.

2. Flanged and Flued Heads

Flanged and flued heads are designed to distribute stress more evenly across the head, making them suitable for higher-pressure applications than flat heads. The flued design enhances structural integrity by reducing stress concentrations.


– High-pressure boilers.
– Pressure vessels used in the petrochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries.
– Compressed air tanks.
– Industrial steam generators.
– Expansion joints for heat exchangers

3. ASME F&D (Flanged and Dished) Heads

ASME F&D heads are a standardized type of flanged and dished head that complies with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These heads have a deeper dished shape than standard flanged and dished heads, providing even greater strength and stress distribution. ASME F&D heads are used in a wide range of high-pressure applications, and they are available in various dimensions to accommodate different vessel sizes and pressure requirements.


– Large-scale pressure vessels in the oil and gas industry.
– Chemical reactors.
– Heat exchangers.
– Cryogenic storage tanks.


Selecting the appropriate pressure vessel head type is crucial for ensuring various industrial processes’ safety, integrity, and efficiency. Flanged-only heads are suitable for low-pressure applications, while flanged and flued heads offer increased strength for moderate-pressure vessels. ASME F&D heads provide the highest level of structural integrity and are preferred for high-pressure and critical applications.

Roben can manufacture Flanged Only heads up to 102” Diameter, Flanged and Flued heads up to 34” Diameter, and ASME F&D heads up to 102” Diameter for Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and High Nickel Alloys.

Engineers and designers must carefully consider the intended use, pressure requirements, and applicable codes and standards when choosing the right head type for a pressure vessel to ensure reliable and safe operation in diverse industries. Should you have any additional questions, please get in touch with us.